Is Flash Sites are SEO Friendly?? An Overview!!!

flash-sites-does-not-work-in-google

Flash-based websites have become additional vital and widespread on the web. Sadly, Flash websites don’t seem to be precisely SEO-friendly. If you wish to enhance the categorization (and hopefully ranking) of your flash-based web site, keep reading.

Although there has been recent excellent news concerning Google up the creep and categorization of Flash content, it’s still a decent rule of thumb to not go overboard once it involves developing flash websites, and stick with the classic rules of programme crawlability.

These classic rules are the following (based on Google’s technical guidelines):

a. Prioritize the use of HTML text links more than any other technology in presenting a hyperlink (such as using flash-based hyperlinks or JavaScript).

b. Search engines find new content by following hyperlinks, therefore it is more important to use HTML-based hyperlinks pointing to all of the other content on your website (even if it uses Flash).

These two rules appear to be simple but can be quite difficult to implement. This tutorial aims to provide some clues and suggestions as to how webmasters might improve the search engine crawlability aspect of their Flash website.

It is important not to underestimate the impact of indexable text content crawled by search engines because:
seoflash1
Based on the above diagram, before you can get a high level of search engine traffic/organic traffic (provided also that your website has that amount of trust and authority in Google), your content needs to be crawled and indexed by search engine bots.

If your website is based on Flash, it is possible that there are some crawling issues that lead to decreased or even no text content being indexed, which can affect search engine traffic.

Let’s do this step by step so that it will look easy. The technique involves rendering some of the parts as HTML so that you can add important SEO onsite factors like title tags.

For example, this is in pure flash:

Your uncrawlable Flash Code…

</embed>

However, it is better to use HTML title tags and other important SEO onsite elements by adding an HTML-based structure in addition to Flash.

Recommended Code Structure:

<html>

<head>

<TITLE> Your SEO Friendly Title Tag </TITLE>

< — Other head elements here — >

</head>

<body>

Your uncrawlable Flash Code…

</embed>

</body>

</html>

Search engine bots like Googlebot can now recognize an indexable title tag in HTML syntax. Do more research and make your title tag descriptive and accurate based on your content. Keywords in your title tag are still an important SEO onsite factor.

The flash content is placed within the body tag.

Here is a screen shot of a flash page with the Title tag element:

seoflash2
This is where most good Flash websites can have crawling issues pertaining to plain text.

Although it uses a fairly descriptive and accurate title tag, when you examine the page with the Lynx Text Browser (recommended by Google as a substitute for the Googlebot’s eyes):

seoflash3
As you can see from the screen shot above, you will never be able to see the content in Flash being rendered correctly and accurately in a text browser view. Even with some degree of advancement by Google in crawling Flash-based content, websites like this still do not have indexable content, as confirmed by its cached text: http:

And a search engine query of a sample content within Flash:

http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=”Diane’s+Concert+Airs+on+PBS,+June+8th&#8221;
&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&oq=&gs_rfai=&cad=h

So what is the solution?

One recommended approach is using noscript tags and inserting them it before the end of the </body> tag.

Recommended Code Structure:

<html>

<head>

<TITLE> Your SEO Friendly Title Tag </TITLE>

< — Other head elements here — >

</head>

<body>

Your uncrawlable Flash Code…

</embed>

<noscript>

Put your Equivalent Text Content based on what is presented using Flash.

</noscript>

</body>

</html>

So if you are presenting “The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog” in Flash, which cannot be indexed by search engines, you might as well put it in a noscript tag:

<noscript>

The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy

</noscript>

A good example of using noscript tags to provide an alternative text indexable by search engine bots can be found here:

All of the content has been rendered in Flash, but since there is no indexable content (like the example previously), a noscript tags has been added and is now indexable by search engines. Here’s a view of the page in the Lynx text browser:
seoflash4

If you are not familiar with the Lynx browser, it is recommended you read the following two tutorials:

Important:  it is recommended that your Flash-based content and the content in noscript tags match, because if you are presenting different content to search engines, this might be considered “cloaking,” which is against quality guidelines.

A pure flash website does not have an optimized <head> section for SEO; it might even have no <head> section at all. Below you will find some tips on what elements need to be added to the head section.

First: Controlling related snippets

One big advantage of using the noscript tag is that it provides an opportunity for Google to pick up related snippets in the search results. This will contribute to the long tail traffic of your website.

For example, if I do a search for: “Website traffic monitoring software using Visual Basic Macro,” the result in Google highlights the snippets related to the query (the return URL is Flash based):

http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&lr=&q=”Website+traffic+monitoring+software+using+Visual+
Basic+Macro”&btnG=Search&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&oq=&gs_rfai=

As suggested by Google in their SEO report card, http://www.mattcutts.com/blog/seo-audit-video/ , you might consider using meta descriptions of URLs with no content or no snippet to return.

This meta description can induce some click through from search engine results, particularly if they are accurate and descriptive to the search query.

Second: Canonicalizing your Flash website URLs using Link rel canonical tag.

You can implement the link rel canonical tag to emphasize canonical URLs to search engine bots like Googlebot.

For more details, read here: http://googlewebmastercentral.blogspot.com/2009/02/specify-your-canonical.html

Third: Verify your Flash website in Google webmaster tools using Google verification meta tags.

Syntax:  <meta name=”google-site-verification” content=”yourmetatagcode” />

You can get your own verification if you add the website in Google Webmaster Tools.

Finally, the updated code structure will look like this:

<html>

<head>

<TITLE> Your SEO Friendly Title Tag </TITLE>

<meta name=”description” content=”Your accurate and descriptive text” />

<meta name=”google-site-verification” content=”dfsderwerwfsdfsddfsdf” />

<link rel=”canonical” href=”http://www.yourflashwebsite.com&#8221; />

< — Other head elements here — >

</head>

<body>

Your uncrawlable Flash Code…

</embed>

<noscript>

Put your Equivalent Text Content based on what is presented using Flash.

</noscript>

</body>

</html>

You have learned the importance of using the Lynx browser to detect whether or not hyperlinks can be seen by Googlebot.

One important technique involves adding crawlable text links in the footer section of your flash website. These links either point to other flash URLs or other pages on your website.

You can insert these text links next to the noscript tag you added earlier. So the code structure will now look like this:

<html>

<head>

<TITLE> Your SEO Friendly Title Tag </TITLE>

<meta name=”description” content=”Your accurate and descriptive text” />

<meta name=”google-site-verification” content=”dfsderwerwfsdfsddfsdf” />

<link rel=”canonical” href=”http://www.yourflashwebsite.com&#8221; />

< — Other head elements here — >

</head>

<body>

Your uncrawlable Flash Code…

</embed>

<noscript>

Put your Equivalent Text Content based on what is presented using Flash.

</noscript>

<div><a href=”http://www.yourflashwebsite.com”>Flash website homepage</a><a href=”http://www.yourflashwebsite.com/about”>About page</a><a href=”http://www.yourflashwebsite.com/contact”>Contact</a&gt;

</div>

</body>

</html>

You can further maximize the use of internal links in your website using the above technique. The important thing is to use <a href> tags for hyperlinks, which is a tag for HTML text-based links.

A good example of a Flash-based web page using HTML text links for navigation is shown here. You will notice that there is a text-based hyperlink added on the footer section of the website.

Depending on your site design and developer, you can put a text link not only on the footer but on the header and sidebar as well. Youtube is a good example of a website with Flash-based content that uses HTML text links for its navigation.

You can even integrate other important SEO onsite factors to make your Flash website SEO friendly by looking up the list mentioned in an earlier article here on SEO Chat.

The technique to getting crawled is to rely on the HTML code structure to optimize the flash website, as shown and illustrated.

Top 5 Social Media Sites!!!

top-5-social-media-site

For many, social media sites might be simply a virtual place to precise your voice or have some fun. For the enterprising ones, social media sites might mean serious business.

You probably don’t ought to move your mouth to speak to the correct individuals however the great news is, they’re going to still “hear” you. you’d be stunned at the powerful connections that social media sites have. All it takes may be a click and you’ll most likely be business a really valuable piece of knowledge for your prospective purchasers or bosses.

Here we have analyzed 5 popular social media sites based on the following criteria: Communication, Brand exposure and Traffic to your sites. You could find out which social media site best suits your purpose and which social media sites could bring your message to the right people better. A snapshot of our take on the 5 Social Media sites is shown through star ratings that would give you a gist of our recommendations and a quick estimation of their effectiveness.

1. FaceBook

top-5-social-media-site
Facebook may be a fastest-growing fashionable on-line platform that allows customization of computer program, that conjointly includes putting in applications to change the expertise additional. Users area unit connected to their friends terribly quickly as they might receive notifications once somebody in their network has created changes or updates to his/her current profile or standing.

Communication: 4/5 stars
With the assistance of notifications, the convenient and easy platform permits the convenience and rate of communication. Besides, accessing FaceBook with mobiles has become Associate in Nursing increasing development. Users will share opinions, be part of teams, hold events and participate in contests handily.

Brand exposure: 4/5 stars
Definitely nice complete exposure. Users area unit ready to get to understand concerning you as long as their friends area unit “connected” to you. Users area unit ready to read the required data they have to urge to understand you. Advertising platform on FaceBook might conjointly increase your complete awareness considerably among your audience.

Traffic to your sites: 3/5 stars
Moderate traffic to your sites with the help of “share” and “like” buttons. can attract solely people that have an interest in your profile.

How are you able to Benefit?
If you’re meaning to produce knowledgeable on-line portfolio for networking functions and attract future employers, FaceBook might be a helpful channel, however do detain mind of the content that you simply area unit business. You future employers may not wish to visualize you being “tagged” in Associate in Nursing album “A racy party at John’s”.

If you’re finding out a convenient thanks to realize friends, family or acquaintances and obtain connected to them simply, FaceBook may be a applicable platform.

If you’re organizing public events or gatherings, FaceBook may be a good way to transport invites. Invited individuals also are ready to invite their friends for the event, reckoning on the privacy level that you simply choose.

If you’re seeking for advertising to succeed in resolute your audience, FaceBook might unfold the word for you because the advertisements would seem to people who have indicated the connected interest in their profile.

Who ought to Use It?
Freelancers, entrepreneurs, organizers, advertisers and anyone World Health Organization desires to attach with individuals.

2. LinkedIn

top-5-social-media-site
LinkedIn‘s tagline “Relationships Matter” is extremely applicable to indicate America what this social network will. basic cognitive process that individuals relationships may be a valuable plus, LinkedIn serves to assist people and firms to make and maintain them. this offers skilleds a plus to be additional triple-crown and productive in their careers by investment on additionally as conducive their to have professional and sure network.

Communication: 3/5 stars
Not spontaneous communication with others, however you’ll build Associate in Nursing identity for yourself by responsive enquiries associated with your business to demonstrate your experience. A feature known as Answers, is analogous to a forum wherever users will post queries and contribute their connected opinions or solutions.

Brand exposure: 5/5 stars
Certainly favorable for stigmatization your identity for each people and firms. Users might get themselves connected to people within the same interest of labor and business to make a network. create the profile a whole one so as to leverage on this platform effectively.

Traffic to your site: 1/5 stars
Significant traffic may not be evident. solely potential purchasers and customers area unit additional seemingly to go to your web site.

How you’ll be able to have the benefit of It?
If you’re a contemporary graduate, World Health Organization is all able to step into the operating society, LinkedIn may be a nice beginning to organize your resume and introduce your strengths and skills to draw in employers or recruiters to land within the profession you need.

Also advantageous for job recruiters to hunt for passive nonetheless qualified job candidates to match them to the correct job or profession.

If you’re thinking of extending the online of your career network, LinkedIn is a wonderful tool to facilitate you. Use the LinkedIn search to look for contacts in your email address lists World Health Organization area unit already on LinkedIn. you’d even be ready to search alumni networks as indicated by your profile data to extend the possibilities of obtaining “connected” with the connected individuals.

If you would like to additional develop and maintain skilled relationships, LinkedIn positively will quite what exchanging business cards will do. offer necessary and in depth data in your profile and obtain yourself actively concerned within the LinkedIn Answers or update your standing to publicize your current project or work. Increase possiblities to urge sale leads.

If you’re longing for solutions for your current or interested business, LinkedIn may be a good spot to look for serious and skilled answers. make sure to phrase your question during a direct and concise manner because it would be additional sound additional authentic and other people area unit additional willing to share.

Who ought to Use It?
Professionals altogether industries. conjointly helpful for job recruiters and headhunters.

3. MySpace

top-5-social-media-site
A large and various audience uses MySpace. Hence, it’s onerous to inform World Health Organization these individuals area unit. offered in fifteen completely different languages, MySpace permits customization of profile and integration of options such and blogs, groups, bulletins, widgets. It appears to be wide employed by the show business like musicians, bands and comedians. later, it permits the increase of freelance bands by providing a platform that bypasses the large players within the business.

Communication: two.5/5 stars
Similar to Facebook, users area unit ready to send messages, add friends and inquire into the profile page or realize individuals from your email address. However, the pitfall of commenting on pages comes from plenty of necessary spamming.

Brand exposure: 3/5 stars
Branding might be done through customization of profile or adding videos (your own or others) to indicate your temperament and interests. Blogging would facilitate to make your complete awareness. Therefore, come back up with humourous nonetheless perceptive posts to reveal actuality facet of you. My SpaceAds conjointly helps to run a good on-line selling campaign.

Traffic to your site: 1/5 stars
It might be troublesome to urge traffic to your web site unless your name is extremely abundant wanted. This conjointly means you have got to figure on the stigmatization of your name and identity. specialise in a audience. keep in mind to moderate your comments page to avoid spamming and embrace real comments from the fans of your music.

How you’ll be able to have the benefit of It?
For musicians, you’ll produce your portfolio or repertoire of your own original music, not forgetting uploading of images, videos and playlists. Users might handily play your songs via the music player. making your video channels conjointly helps to sustain your presence. For developers, you’ll produce applications which will promote your information processing system.

For music producers World Health Organization area unit on an exploration for brand new abilities, you’ll learn additional concerning conflict freelance works and their quality on-line.

My SpaceAds helps to run a good on-line selling campaign. you’ll style your own packaging, opt for World Health Organization is ready to look at it supported profile characteristics like listed gender and locations, and pay supported the quantity of clicks the packaging receives.

Who ought to Use It?
Independent bands. fling the thought of causing in your music CDs and tapes to the recording firms for an instant, however concerning making an internet name or music identity? MySpace may be a good spot for you to urge started and permit your music to be noted to the remainder of the globe.

4. Twitter

top-5-social-media-site
Twitter may be a fashionable microblogging system that allows users to send messages of a hundred and forty or less. It initial started as a method to speak among friends, family and coworkers and has evolved into a strong social medium as an excellent and very quick thanks to broadcast data. name the grape-vine. Twitter so illustrates the that means. Even the forty fourth U.S president Barack Obama tweets.

Communication: 5/5 stars
Twitter permits spontaneous interaction in real time. Twitter purchasers on mobiles have gotten fashionable and permits fast and simple communication. you’d be ready to track what individuals area unit spoken language concerning you or your connected business competitors.

Brand exposure: 4/5 stars
Twitter permits engagement with individuals during a infective agent method. Loyal and happy customers or purchasers would “retweet” messages that they’d like to suggest. Through constant and important tweeting, your complete awareness would be increased. A short, sweet nonetheless spare message would function an excellent selling gimmick.

Traffic to your site: 3/5 stars
There is a good quantity of potential to garner traffic to your web site, however it depends on however you promote or sell your web site on Twitter. underneath or over promotion will each flip your followers off.

How you’ll be able to have the benefit of It?
Twitter may be a sensible and helpful method of scattering data of your organization on-line. supply helpful data such audience and your targeted customers or purchasers would be “following” you. to draw in attention, use catchy and intelligent copywriting once tweeting. you’ll conjointly follow connected people that area unit in your space of business and interest and you’ll be able to be assured of landing within the right network.

Who ought to Use It?
News organizations, marketers and advertisers.

5. Digg

top-5-social-media-site
Playfully named as Digg, it’s so a platform to dig permanently stuff and unleash breaking news. Discovering and sharing websites is largely what Digg is concerning. Users “digg” for web page and submit links to Digg. These contents embrace from something from technology to sports. later, Digg becomes a system that permits the net audience to drive the kind of quality of knowledge on the online. the most repercussion is that there’s no editorial observation, thus we tend to should take care once it involves aggregation information and data.

Communication: 3/5 stars
Communication may not be the the first means that in Digg. Users rarely use it as a sort of communication. Readers might inquire into the Digg page tho’.

Brand exposure: 4/5 stars
You would actually ready to leverage on the Digg web site to form and sustain complete exposure. to form wonderful complete exposure, make sure that your titles of your articles don’t sound an excessive amount of like advertisements however offer spare data to urge readers interested and hungry.

Traffic to your site: 5/5 stars
Definitely drives traffic to your {site|website|web web site} as interested and hunger-driven Digg readers would click on the title that links to your site.

How you’ll be able to have the benefit of It?
Digg creates the trend or the talking topic on-line because the Digg users discuss or vote for the subject that best interests them. For business entrepreneurs, you’ll rummage around for fashionable and attention-grabbing topics that dominate over a amount and choose for a distinct segment market to enter. For advertisers and selling, you’ll be careful for trends and headlines or content that cause users to urge excited and vote for it.

Digg conjointly is a valuable tool to stay track of reports of business competitors. Any press releases concerning selections created by business competitors and would eventually involve the customers would seemingly to be “digged/dugged”. Hence, it’s helpful as a tool for PR observation.

Who ought to Use It?
Online publishers, bloggers, marketers and PR personnel.

Conclusion
It is positively not Associate in Nursing exaggeration to mention that social media websites area unit evolving to be (or area unit already) Associate in Nursing integration into our lives. particularly for the younger generation, they’re growing up during a world that appears smaller as a result of communication has become abundant easier as compared to their grandfathers’ time. Interaction with a whole intruder from another facet of the globe doesn’t appear that strange finally.

The secret’s to stay competitive is to bring the resources to your advantage. determine your has to attain effective communication then opt for the correct channels to broadcast your message.

With additional advanced technology, higher accessibility and higher user expertise area unit created attainable. we will positively expect a proliferation of social media websites and applications. individuals area unit mutually beneficial Associate in Nursingd important networking with others is unquestionably an plus.

What Is Drupal CMS?

dupal-cms

What’s Drupal?
Drupal could be a content management system (also refered to as CMS), which means Drupal is employed to manage content on informational sites, social media sites, member sites, intranets and net applications.

Drupal is not a CMS, to be precise, however a platform into that numerous modules may be blocked and combined to produce CMS customised to your wants. There ar modules for several functions, as an example storing completely different types of content, retrieving content supported criteria, and for displaying content in several ways in which and far a lot of.

What is it that creates Drupal completely different from alternative CMS’s?
EPiServer, SiteVision, Sitecore, Polopoly and Escenic ar all samples of 1st generation content management systems. {they’re|they ar} characterised by the very fact that new or customised practicality is else through development of latest modules that are programmed in Java or the .NET platform. this can be time overwhelming and needs facilitate from specialists. In follow, what this ends up in, could be a monopoly-like scenario wherever you become addicted to a restricted range of service suppliers for creating even the littlest of changes or development.

Drupal, on the opposite hand, could be a second generation CMS. It implies that plenty of latest or customised practicality may be created within the program while not programming. Doing this does not take abundant time and might be done by a member of your workers versed in your operations. This lessens your dependency on service suppliers offers you the liberty to form easy changes and development yourself.

But even Drupal needs programming at one purpose or another, for functions like desegregation alternative systems into your own operations. however don’t be concerned, Drupal is additionally free software package with open supply, in contrast to EPiServer, SiteVision et c. this implies that Drupal is free (gratis), that you just might use or modify Drupal to your heart’s need. It’s up to you (no one else!) to come to a decision whether or not you would like to distribute your modifications. the sole issue you are expected to try to to reciprocally is that if you decide on to distribute same modifications you create them accessible underneath a similar terms you obtained Drupal, that’s Associate in Nursing open supply license.

Why ought to I choose Drupal?
There ar four reasons why you must select Drupal rather than EPiServer, SiteVision, Sitecore, Polopoly, Escenic and alternative 1st generation content management systems. mistreatment Drupal you’ll produce solutions that:

offer shorter time to promote for brand new or improved options on your website.
empower your workers to customise and any improve your web site while not wishing on a Drupal service offer
offer property maintenance once several little changes happen that have an effect on practicality likewise as style
lower the full value of possession (TCO) as a results of Drupal being free software package, providing shorter development time, less dependence on service suppliers and lower maintenance prices.
Drupal’s distinctive blessings ar possible that primary reason why Gartner cluster ranks Drupal means prior to EPiServer with regards to “completeness of vision” likewise as “ability to execute”.

What Is WordPress ?

wordpress-logo-amd

WordPress started in 2003 with one little bit of code to boost the typography of everyday writing and with fewer users than you’ll judge your fingers and toes. Since then it’s fully grown to be the biggest self-hosted blogging tool within the world, used on innumerable sites and seen by tens of innumerable individuals each day.

Everything you see here, from the documentation to the code itself, was created by and for the community. WordPress is associate degree Open supply project, which suggests there ar many individuals everywhere the planet engaged on it. (More than most business platforms.) It additionally means that you’re liberated to use it for any price from your cat’s home page to a Fortune five hundred data processor while not paying anyone a fee and variety of different vital freedoms.

About WordPress.org
On this website you’ll transfer and install a code script referred to as WordPress. to try to to this you would like an online host United Nations agency meets the minimum needs and alittle time. WordPress is totally customizable and might be used for nearly somethingthere’s additionally a service referred to as WordPress.com that enables you to start with a brand new and free WordPress-based journal in seconds, however varies in many ways in which and is a smaller amount versatile than the WordPress you transfer and install yourself.

What you’ll Use WordPress For
WordPress started as simply a blogging system, however has evolved to be used as full content management system so way more through the thousands of plugins and widgets and themes, WordPress is proscribed solely by your imagination. (And school chops.)

Connect with the Community
In addition to on-line resources just like the forums and mailing lists a good thanks to get entangled with WordPress is to attend or volunteer at a WordCamp, that ar free or cheap events that happen all round the world to assemble and educate WordPress users, organized by WordPress users. scrutinize the web site, there could be a WordCamp close to you.

A Little History
WordPress was born out of a need for a chic, well-architectured personal publication system designed on PHP and MySQL and licenced beneath the GPLv2 (or later). it’s the official successor of b2/cafelog. WordPress is recent codehowever its roots and development return to 2001. it’s a mature and stable product. we have a tendency to hope by that specialize in user expertise and internet standards we are able to produce a tool totally different from the rest out there.

By

AMD

FLOPPY TO PENDRIVE

floppy-to-pendrive

Pen Generate, an awesome method of digital information storage has become part of our lifestyles in almost notime. It is also known as USB usb usb drive. In the following collections we will deal with the product, itsspecifications, good and bad factors. The best thing about a pen drive is that it uses an USB slot for its working. And, as far as we know, USB slots are numerous. Nicknamed as weak hard drive of the new millennium, it is the ultimate storage system. Huge storage space potential, low – cost and convenient characteristics have made it the best choice for information storage space.

Commercially, they are available in a extensive variety of storage capabilities. From 1GB to 32GB, traditional storage space devices are readily available in the market. Moreover, for higher storage capabilities, difficult drive drive has progressed. These enormous devices can have storage storage space potential comparative to that of a whole computer. Often, these devices can come useful during emergency situations too. Assume, you are going for a meeting, just take your PowerPoint files in your usb usb drive and provide a awesome presentation! Due to the multi- level mobile (MLC) framework of pen pushes, these awesome devices are effective for up to around 10,000 creates. Due to the durability, one has no choice but to agree to the greatest supremacy of the product

At the same time storage devices have their drawbacks; they can work up to only a certain restrict. Like any other storage system, it cannot perform recurring creates and removes and eventually succumbs to failing. Another drawback is due to its small size. There are a lot of occurrences when we have lost our precious little pen pushes. However essential the disadvantages seem to be, it cannot be changed by any other storage device at this time. We will need higher technical enhancements to progress of pen pushes.

The primary factors that have made pen drives a gem in our sight are very clear. But, still one question continues to be. Is this the greatest thing?? Can we come up with better things? Yes we can. There is always a opportunity for technological progression. Exterior difficult drive drive is one such example wherepen drives have been customized into better products which are handier. With the number of tech- smart people improving day by day, everything relevant to technological innovation is going through a fast development. And even if we progress and develop better devices of storage space,?pen drive?will always be there in our thoughts as a gem.

Pen Generate, an awesome method of digital information storage has become part of our lifestyles in almost notime. It is also known as USB usb usb drive. In the following collections we will deal with the product, itsspecifications, good and bad factors. The best thing about a pen drive is that it uses an USB slot for its working. And, as far as we know, USB slots are numerous. Nicknamed as weak hard drive of the new millennium, it is the ultimate storage system. Huge storage space potential, low – cost and convenient characteristics have made it the best choice for information storage space.

Commercially, they are available in a extensive variety of storage capabilities. From 1GB to 32GB, traditional storage space devices are readily available in the market. Moreover, for higher storage capabilities, difficult drive drive has progressed. These enormous devices can have storage storage space potential comparative to that of a whole computer. Often, these devices can come useful during emergency situations too. Assume, you are going for a meeting, just take your PowerPoint files in your usb usb drive and provide a awesome presentation! Due to the multi- level mobile (MLC) framework of pen pushes, these awesome devices are effective for up to around 10,000 creates. Due to the durability, one has no choice but to agree to the greatest supremacy of the product.

At the same time storage devices have their drawbacks; they can work up to only a certain restrict. Like any other storage system, it cannot perform recurring creates and removes and eventually succumbs to failing. Another drawback is due to its small size. There are a lot of occurrences when we have lost our precious little pen pushes. However essential the disadvantages seem to be, it cannot be changed by any other storage device at this time. We will need higher technical enhancements to progress of pen pushes.

The primary factors that have made pen drives a gem in our sight are very clear. But, still one question continues to be. Is this the greatest thing?? Can we come up with better things? Yes we can. There is always a opportunity for technological progression. Exterior difficult drive drive is one such example wherepen drives have been customized into better products which are handier. With the number of tech- smart people improving day by day, everything relevant to technological innovation is going through a fast development. And even if we progress and develop better devices of storage space,?pen drive?will always be there in our thoughts as a gem.

ELECTRONICS AND BIOLOGY

biology-and-electronicsA multi-institutional research team led by Andrei Kholkin of the University of Aveiro, Portugal, used a combination of experiments and modeling to identify and explain the presence of ferroelectricity, a property where materials switch their polarization when an electric field is applied, in the simplest known amino acid — glycine.

“The discovery of ferroelectricity opens new pathways to novel classes of bioelectronic logic and memory devices, where polarization switching is used to record and retrieve information in the form of ferroelectric domains,” said coauthor and senior scientist at ORNL’s Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) Sergei Kalinin.

Although certain biological molecules like glycine are known to be piezoelectric, a phenomenon in which materials respond to pressure by producing electricity, ferroelectricity is relatively rare in the realm of biology. Thus, scientists are still unclear about the potential applications of ferroelectric biomaterials.

“This research helps paves the way toward building memory devices made of molecules that already exist in our bodies,” Kholkin said.

For example, making use of the ability to switch polarization through tiny electric fields may help build nanorobots that can swim through human blood. Kalinin cautions that such nanotechnology is still a long way in the future.

“Clearly there is a very long road from studying electromechanical coupling on the molecular level to making a nanomotor that can flow through blood,” Kalinin said. “But unless you have a way to make this motor and study it, there will be no second and third steps. Our method can offer an option for quantitative and reproducible study of this electromechanical conversion.”

The study, published in Advanced Functional Materials, builds on previous research at ORNL’s CNMS, where Kalinin and others are developing new tools such as the piezoresponse force microscopy used in the experimental study of glycine.

“It turns out that piezoresponse force microsopy is perfectly suited to observe the fine details in biological systems at the nanoscale,” Kalinin said. “With this type of microscopy, you gain the capability to study electromechanical motion on the level of a single molecule or small number of molecular assemblies. This scale is exactly where interesting things can happen.”

Kholkin’s lab grew the crystalline samples of glycine that were studied by his team and by the ORNL microscopy group. In addition to the experimental measurements, the team’s theorists verified the ferroelectricity with molecular dynamics simulations that explained the mechanisms behind the observed behavior.

Op-Amp Tester

I fried an op-amp the other day, but couldn’t prove it immediately. All I knew was that it wasn’t working in the circuit, but I didn’t know if the chip was dead or if it was just one of those picky chips that demands special care. So, I rigged up a simple go/no-go DIP-8 dual op-amp tester: plug the chip in, apply power, and see if the LEDs light up.

The schematic (single channel):

opamp-tester-schematic

The finished dual channel tester:

opamp-tester-pic2The circuit will work with any op-amp. Fortunately, there are just a few standard pinouts, and the circuit is cheap, so you can build just a few versions and cover almost every possibility:

Single-channel op-amp pinout                                                     

opamp-pinout-single  

Dual-channel op-amp pinout

opamp-pinout-dual

Quad-channel op-amp pinout

opamp-pinout-quad

The unlabeled pins on the single-channel pinout are used for various purposes on different chips. You should leave these pins disconnected when building a single-channel version of this circuit.

Theory of Operation
This is a very simple circuit. Since most op-amps work best off of a dual supply, we split the single supply voltage in two equal halves with a TLE2426 “rail splitter.” We want to give the op-amps we test the greatest possible chance to pass our test. If the test fails, there should be no question that it’s because the op-amp is dead; if the user begins to doubt the testing circuit, there’s little point in having the circuit in the first place. The TLE2426 also ensures that the power supply doesn’t get unbalanced, which can throw the results off badly. I did try a simple resistor-divider power supply, and it did get unbalanced easily, even with working chips. You could rig another type of virtual-ground power supply, if you don’t like or can’t get the TLE2426.
R1 and R2 form an 0.55× voltage divider. Subtract 0.5× the supply voltage and you get a reference voltage of +0.05× (1/20) the supply voltage relative to virtual ground going into the op-amp’s +IN. With a fresh 9V battery (~9.5V), you get 0.475V out of the divider relative to virtual ground. We divide the voltage down this far because one of the things we want to test about the op-amp is its ability to amplify the input voltage. Since the op-amp is configured for a gain of 7.8, the output can be as high as about 3.7V.
The analysis so far assumes the op-amp is ideal. The load on the op-amp with a fresh 9V battery and a 1.8V LED is about 9mA, and the highest output voltage can be within about 0.5V of V+. Not all op-amps can drive such a load without the output voltage sagging, and others can’t swing that close to the V+ rail, so you might need a fresh battery — or more than 9V! — to get the LEDs to light up with some op-amps.
The low-voltage limit on this circuit depends on your op-amp and battery configuration. Assuming an ideal op-amp, you get 1mA through the LED with about a 5.2V supply. That gives a decent amount of LED brightness with your average red LED. Many op-amps can’t run on such a low voltage, and a 9V battery is pretty much dead by that point, so there isn’t any point in talking about lower voltages.
It’s about as simple as you could want. The circuit supplies a low input voltage to each of the op-amp’s channels, tries to use the op-amp to amplify it, and if the chip is working properly, the LED(s) will light up.
I have tested this circuit on four known-dead dual op-amps, and three fail to light up either LED, and the other causes one LED to flash intermittently and the other LED fails to come on. Known-good op-amp chips have lit both LEDs in all my tests so far.