FLOPPY TO PENDRIVE

floppy-to-pendrive

Pen Generate, an awesome method of digital information storage has become part of our lifestyles in almost notime. It is also known as USB usb usb drive. In the following collections we will deal with the product, itsspecifications, good and bad factors. The best thing about a pen drive is that it uses an USB slot for its working. And, as far as we know, USB slots are numerous. Nicknamed as weak hard drive of the new millennium, it is the ultimate storage system. Huge storage space potential, low – cost and convenient characteristics have made it the best choice for information storage space.

Commercially, they are available in a extensive variety of storage capabilities. From 1GB to 32GB, traditional storage space devices are readily available in the market. Moreover, for higher storage capabilities, difficult drive drive has progressed. These enormous devices can have storage storage space potential comparative to that of a whole computer. Often, these devices can come useful during emergency situations too. Assume, you are going for a meeting, just take your PowerPoint files in your usb usb drive and provide a awesome presentation! Due to the multi- level mobile (MLC) framework of pen pushes, these awesome devices are effective for up to around 10,000 creates. Due to the durability, one has no choice but to agree to the greatest supremacy of the product

At the same time storage devices have their drawbacks; they can work up to only a certain restrict. Like any other storage system, it cannot perform recurring creates and removes and eventually succumbs to failing. Another drawback is due to its small size. There are a lot of occurrences when we have lost our precious little pen pushes. However essential the disadvantages seem to be, it cannot be changed by any other storage device at this time. We will need higher technical enhancements to progress of pen pushes.

The primary factors that have made pen drives a gem in our sight are very clear. But, still one question continues to be. Is this the greatest thing?? Can we come up with better things? Yes we can. There is always a opportunity for technological progression. Exterior difficult drive drive is one such example wherepen drives have been customized into better products which are handier. With the number of tech- smart people improving day by day, everything relevant to technological innovation is going through a fast development. And even if we progress and develop better devices of storage space,?pen drive?will always be there in our thoughts as a gem.

Pen Generate, an awesome method of digital information storage has become part of our lifestyles in almost notime. It is also known as USB usb usb drive. In the following collections we will deal with the product, itsspecifications, good and bad factors. The best thing about a pen drive is that it uses an USB slot for its working. And, as far as we know, USB slots are numerous. Nicknamed as weak hard drive of the new millennium, it is the ultimate storage system. Huge storage space potential, low – cost and convenient characteristics have made it the best choice for information storage space.

Commercially, they are available in a extensive variety of storage capabilities. From 1GB to 32GB, traditional storage space devices are readily available in the market. Moreover, for higher storage capabilities, difficult drive drive has progressed. These enormous devices can have storage storage space potential comparative to that of a whole computer. Often, these devices can come useful during emergency situations too. Assume, you are going for a meeting, just take your PowerPoint files in your usb usb drive and provide a awesome presentation! Due to the multi- level mobile (MLC) framework of pen pushes, these awesome devices are effective for up to around 10,000 creates. Due to the durability, one has no choice but to agree to the greatest supremacy of the product.

At the same time storage devices have their drawbacks; they can work up to only a certain restrict. Like any other storage system, it cannot perform recurring creates and removes and eventually succumbs to failing. Another drawback is due to its small size. There are a lot of occurrences when we have lost our precious little pen pushes. However essential the disadvantages seem to be, it cannot be changed by any other storage device at this time. We will need higher technical enhancements to progress of pen pushes.

The primary factors that have made pen drives a gem in our sight are very clear. But, still one question continues to be. Is this the greatest thing?? Can we come up with better things? Yes we can. There is always a opportunity for technological progression. Exterior difficult drive drive is one such example wherepen drives have been customized into better products which are handier. With the number of tech- smart people improving day by day, everything relevant to technological innovation is going through a fast development. And even if we progress and develop better devices of storage space,?pen drive?will always be there in our thoughts as a gem.

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ELECTRONICS AND BIOLOGY

biology-and-electronicsA multi-institutional research team led by Andrei Kholkin of the University of Aveiro, Portugal, used a combination of experiments and modeling to identify and explain the presence of ferroelectricity, a property where materials switch their polarization when an electric field is applied, in the simplest known amino acid — glycine.

“The discovery of ferroelectricity opens new pathways to novel classes of bioelectronic logic and memory devices, where polarization switching is used to record and retrieve information in the form of ferroelectric domains,” said coauthor and senior scientist at ORNL’s Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) Sergei Kalinin.

Although certain biological molecules like glycine are known to be piezoelectric, a phenomenon in which materials respond to pressure by producing electricity, ferroelectricity is relatively rare in the realm of biology. Thus, scientists are still unclear about the potential applications of ferroelectric biomaterials.

“This research helps paves the way toward building memory devices made of molecules that already exist in our bodies,” Kholkin said.

For example, making use of the ability to switch polarization through tiny electric fields may help build nanorobots that can swim through human blood. Kalinin cautions that such nanotechnology is still a long way in the future.

“Clearly there is a very long road from studying electromechanical coupling on the molecular level to making a nanomotor that can flow through blood,” Kalinin said. “But unless you have a way to make this motor and study it, there will be no second and third steps. Our method can offer an option for quantitative and reproducible study of this electromechanical conversion.”

The study, published in Advanced Functional Materials, builds on previous research at ORNL’s CNMS, where Kalinin and others are developing new tools such as the piezoresponse force microscopy used in the experimental study of glycine.

“It turns out that piezoresponse force microsopy is perfectly suited to observe the fine details in biological systems at the nanoscale,” Kalinin said. “With this type of microscopy, you gain the capability to study electromechanical motion on the level of a single molecule or small number of molecular assemblies. This scale is exactly where interesting things can happen.”

Kholkin’s lab grew the crystalline samples of glycine that were studied by his team and by the ORNL microscopy group. In addition to the experimental measurements, the team’s theorists verified the ferroelectricity with molecular dynamics simulations that explained the mechanisms behind the observed behavior.

Op-Amp Tester

I fried an op-amp the other day, but couldn’t prove it immediately. All I knew was that it wasn’t working in the circuit, but I didn’t know if the chip was dead or if it was just one of those picky chips that demands special care. So, I rigged up a simple go/no-go DIP-8 dual op-amp tester: plug the chip in, apply power, and see if the LEDs light up.

The schematic (single channel):

opamp-tester-schematic

The finished dual channel tester:

opamp-tester-pic2The circuit will work with any op-amp. Fortunately, there are just a few standard pinouts, and the circuit is cheap, so you can build just a few versions and cover almost every possibility:

Single-channel op-amp pinout                                                     

opamp-pinout-single  

Dual-channel op-amp pinout

opamp-pinout-dual

Quad-channel op-amp pinout

opamp-pinout-quad

The unlabeled pins on the single-channel pinout are used for various purposes on different chips. You should leave these pins disconnected when building a single-channel version of this circuit.

Theory of Operation
This is a very simple circuit. Since most op-amps work best off of a dual supply, we split the single supply voltage in two equal halves with a TLE2426 “rail splitter.” We want to give the op-amps we test the greatest possible chance to pass our test. If the test fails, there should be no question that it’s because the op-amp is dead; if the user begins to doubt the testing circuit, there’s little point in having the circuit in the first place. The TLE2426 also ensures that the power supply doesn’t get unbalanced, which can throw the results off badly. I did try a simple resistor-divider power supply, and it did get unbalanced easily, even with working chips. You could rig another type of virtual-ground power supply, if you don’t like or can’t get the TLE2426.
R1 and R2 form an 0.55× voltage divider. Subtract 0.5× the supply voltage and you get a reference voltage of +0.05× (1/20) the supply voltage relative to virtual ground going into the op-amp’s +IN. With a fresh 9V battery (~9.5V), you get 0.475V out of the divider relative to virtual ground. We divide the voltage down this far because one of the things we want to test about the op-amp is its ability to amplify the input voltage. Since the op-amp is configured for a gain of 7.8, the output can be as high as about 3.7V.
The analysis so far assumes the op-amp is ideal. The load on the op-amp with a fresh 9V battery and a 1.8V LED is about 9mA, and the highest output voltage can be within about 0.5V of V+. Not all op-amps can drive such a load without the output voltage sagging, and others can’t swing that close to the V+ rail, so you might need a fresh battery — or more than 9V! — to get the LEDs to light up with some op-amps.
The low-voltage limit on this circuit depends on your op-amp and battery configuration. Assuming an ideal op-amp, you get 1mA through the LED with about a 5.2V supply. That gives a decent amount of LED brightness with your average red LED. Many op-amps can’t run on such a low voltage, and a 9V battery is pretty much dead by that point, so there isn’t any point in talking about lower voltages.
It’s about as simple as you could want. The circuit supplies a low input voltage to each of the op-amp’s channels, tries to use the op-amp to amplify it, and if the chip is working properly, the LED(s) will light up.
I have tested this circuit on four known-dead dual op-amps, and three fail to light up either LED, and the other causes one LED to flash intermittently and the other LED fails to come on. Known-good op-amp chips have lit both LEDs in all my tests so far.